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PM&R Journal - Cancer Rehabilitation

Cancer Rehabilitation FAQ

The following information is brought to you by the AAPM&R Cancer Rehabilitation Member Community. Learn more about this exciting and rewarding new clinical pathway for physiatrists. 

What is Cancer Rehabilitation?

Being a cancer rehabilitation physiatrist is an incredibly rewarding experience. We help cancer survivors and their families deal with the physical, cognitive, emotional and social complications of cancer diagnosis and treatment. By 2025 there are projected to be over 17 million cancer survivors in the United States, a population of all ages and abilities. Cancer can affect any organ system and find its way into any part of the human body; thus, a cancer rehabilitation physiatrist’s scope of practice may be as wide, or as narrow as the physician chooses. Because of variations in disease trajectory, due to the disease itself as well as potential long term and late effects, cancer rehabilitation can be very dynamic.

While cancer rehabilitation follows the same basic principles as general rehabilitation, there are a number of important distinctions. First, the communication between the physiatrist and the members of the oncology team must be extensive, especially for patients in active cancer treatment. Since there are often a number of disciplines involved in the care of one patient at the same time (medical oncology, radiation oncology, surgery, palliative care), a cancer rehabilitation physiatrist interfaces with an especially wide circle of providers in other specialties. Meaningful dialogue with the oncology team requires that the cancer rehabilitation physiatrist has a good understanding of cancer care, helping guide maximally safe, timely and efficient restorative therapy. Many oncologists may not be familiar with the advantages of engaging rehabilitation service early and are very protective of their patients. Often, providing good care means interfacing with oncology by providing data for the merits of our services, and accessibility around oncology appointments.

Second, cancer rehabilitation incorporates an especially wide medical knowledge spectrum. In addition to a solid PM&R base, clinical focus often includes management of impairments such as lymphedema or fatigue, consideration of precautionary strategies related to underlying oncology factors, understanding of common impairment constellations by tumor type, modification of treatment approach by phase of disease, and anticipating potential radiation and chemotherapy side effects.

Third, a more somber distinction between cancer rehabilitation and many other rehabilitation subspecialties is that the cancer rehabilitation physiatrist is probably more likely to experience the passing of their patients. While usually expected in such cases, death of a patient is still a tragic event. However, a cancer rehabilitation physiatrist can help preserve dignity at end of life by facilitating self-care and other interventions that allow patients and their families to face the end on their terms. The relationship between physiatrists and their patients, particularly with those who have more extensive rehabilitation needs, such as spinal cord injury patients, is often very close and the patients highly value this care.

What kinds of things do you see in cancer rehabilitation? (common diagnoses, procedures, role in cancer care, etc.)

Pain and fatigue are the two most common complaints of cancer survivors. Neuropathy is probably one of the most predominant side effects from chemotherapy and other cancer treatment regimens. Chemo-induced peripheral neuropathy will most commonly cause neuropathic pain that the limits functioning and potentially impacts further treatment. Musculoskeletal problems often stem from local treatment effects, both acutely and long-term. For example, ipsilateral shoulder pain is highly prevalent in women undergoing mastectomy and/or radiation for breast cancer treatment. Head and neck cancer survivors often present with a trio of trismus, cervical dystonia, and dysphagia. Patients undergoing treatment of pelvic malignancies (cervix, uterus, prostate) often require restorative care for incontinence, pelvic pain, and impaired sexual function. Systemic effects of hormonal deprivation in both men and women often manifest as widespread pain and can sound overwhelming to the physician: widespread tendinopathies, bursopathies, myalgias, fatigue and low energy. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among long-term cancer survivors, thus a physiatrist with a special interest in cardiopulmonary system can provide a great service to the oncologic population.

Almost anything that is used for functional restoration or pain control in general physiatry is employed in cancer rehabilitation. In addition to interdisciplinary rehabilitation therapies, procedures are often employed. These include peripheral and axial injections, chemodenervation, acupuncture, osteopathic manipulation, electrodiagnosis, functional electrical stimulation, biofeedback training, and orthotics and prosthetic interventions. As a general rule, a cancer rehabilitation physiatrist should have a low threshold to discuss the proposed treatment with the oncologist taking care of the patient, as there are several safety considerations that may not exist in general rehab. Some examples are increased risk for infection or bleeding, medication interaction, or participation in clinical trials of anti-cancer agents that may prohibit the use of steroids.

The role of rehabilitation in cancer care goes beyond symptom management. Restoring a patient’s ability to tolerate physical stress can mean the difference between receiving treatment to control their disease versus shifting care into a palliative mode. A cancer rehabilitation physiatrist’s assessment of a patient’s function can provide an invaluable input to the oncology team deciding on a treatment course. Often the most challenging and rewarding experience is seeing patients through the devastating effects of critical illnesses that can complicate systemic cancer therapy, such as neutropenic sepsis with multi-system organ failure. Finally, rehabilitation can help preserve dignity and independence by teaching patients and their caretakers how to safely accomplish the tasks of daily care, allowing them to finish their journey at home, rather than in a facility.

In what kind of setting is cancer rehabilitation practiced? (acute, inpatient, outpatient, SNF, consults, etc.)

Cancer rehabilitation is practiced anywhere there is a cancer survivor in need of functional restoration! Outpatient clinics, acute care consult service, acute and subacute inpatient rehabilitation centers, hospice units are all places where a cancer rehabilitation medicine physician can make a difference. There are many misconceptions about restorative care for oncology patients across the entire survivorship spectrum that a cancer rehabilitation physician can help dispel. For example, healthcare providers may believe that Stage IV cancer diagnosis means that a patient can not engage in resistance exercise. In such cases a cancer rehabilitation physician consultant can help educate allied health professionals and other physicians to reduce unnecessary immobilization and prevent deconditioning.

Why should I consider a career in cancer rehabilitation? (what advantage(s)/disadvantage(s) does it give me, career opportunities, etc.) Do I need a fellowship to have a career in cancer rehabilitation? What are some things I should focus on to make myself a competitive candidate for fellowship? Should I do an away rotation?

A fellowship in cancer rehabilitation, particularly one affiliated with an established comprehensive cancer center, provides the most intense and immersive exposure to the entire breadth of cancer rehabilitation. It provides the opportunity to learn in 12 months what may otherwise take years because of the patient volume. As in any specialized training, there are intricacies of cancer rehabilitation that cannot be learned from textbooks. Access to mentors that provide input in real time is invaluable as well. Hospital organizations are aware of the projected increase in the cancer survivor population, thus cancer rehabilitation is a fast-growing field and completion of a cancer rehabilitation fellowship provides a competitive edge when seeking employment.

First and most important, focus on excellence in all aspects of PM&R as you will use a wide range of clinical knowledge in your cancer rehabilitation practice. Second, start to familiarize yourself with the cancer rehabilitation literature, and even, if possible, incorporate cancer rehabilitation into some of the presentations you may do in the course of your residency, since teaching always deepens a person’s knowledge. Third, try get some cancer rehabilitation experience, such as via an elective in cancer rehabilitation, in order to increase your exposure so you can be sure about your decision, and to start to make some personal connections that will help you in your career path.

If you feel an away rotation is necessary to be sure of your decision and get experience, it may be helpful. However, your program may have restrictions, and it can end up being an observership. It may be helpful for networking for future career goals.

Why haven't I heard of cancer rehabilitation before now?

It is a smaller subspecialty amongst PM&R subspecialties.  Additionally, it is often lumped in with general rehabilitation, neurorehabilitation (e.g. the brain tumors), or pain disorders.

How many fellowship programs/positions are there currently nationwide? When do I apply? Are they ACGME accredited? Is there a board exam?

There are currently five PM&R Cancer Rehabilitation Fellowships, all of which are one-year non-accredited positions. There is no formal accreditation or board exam for the fellowship at this time because the field is so new. Residents in Physical Medicine are Rehabilitation apply in the summer of their PGY-3 year with interviews typically held in the fall.

What are the current fellowship programs, what are some details, and who can I contact to learn more?

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

  • 2 positions per year.
  • Outpatient clinics, rotating with all attendings in the department
  • Additional rotations, rotating every other month:
    • Inpatient consults
    • Procedures (ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopic)
  • Didactic sessions (weekly lectures, quarterly Grand Rounds, multidisciplinary spine rounds, journal club)
  • Research project
  • Program Director & Contact Information:
    • Christian Custodio, MD
    • Contact Rachelle Barthelemy at 212-639-6340 or

University of Texas M.D. Anderson

  • 2 positions per year.
  • Inpatient cancer rehabilitation (4 months)
    • 2 months at a time, dedicated unit for only cancer rehab with variety of solid and liquid tumors, stem cell transplant patients
  • Inpatient  consultation (2-3 months)
    • Variety of solid and liquid tumors, stem cell transplant patients
    • Duration: 2-3 months
  • Outpatient 
    • 1-2 months + longitudinal - 2 times a week half day through most of the year
    • Routine rehab
    • Prehabilitation, both surgical and pre-stem cell transplant
    • Musculoskeletal injections - Botox, ultrasound guided injections, etc.
    • Electrodiagnosis - longitudinal throughout the year
  • Electives/rotations (1.5 months)
    • Palliative Care - Inpatient Palliative Care Unit and outpatient clinic for symptom management
    • Pain - Outpatient including opiate management
    • Psychiatry - Inpatient consult and Outpatient Sexual dysfunction in cancer patients.
  • Other electives/rotations (1-1.5 months)
    • Orthopedic Oncology/Sarcoma, head and Neck, Lymphedema, Integrative Medicine, Breast Cancer survivorship clinic, Plastic surgery lymphedema, Pediatrics, Fatigue Clinic, wound Ostomy, Ethics
  • Research (1 month)
    • Clinical trials, Case reports etc., Significant institutional and department support including multiple workshops (scientific writing, research project development), working on Institutional Review Board approval, "Blueprint meetings", Quality improvement projects
    • Opportunities for exposure to program development
  • Call responsibilities every 4 weeks
  • Didactic sessions (Core Curriculum, Grand Rounds, Chiefs Rounds, Morning Report, Palliative Care and Cancer Rehab Journal Clubs, Cancer Rehab informal discussions)
  • Program Director & Contact Information:

National Rehabilitation Hospital/Georgetown University

  • 1 position per year.
  • Rotation schedule includes:
    • Outpatient clinics (3 months)
    • Radiation oncology/hyperbaric medicine (4 weeks)
    • Palliative care (4 weeks)
    • PT/OT/SLP (4 weeks)
    • Cancer surgery (4 weeks),
    • Pediatric clinic (4 weeks)
    • Inpatient cancer rehabilitation (4 weeks)
    • Exercise/nutrition (4 weeks)
    • Wound care (4 weeks)
  • Ongoing inpatient consults and urogynecology clinic
  • Ongoing outpatient clinic throughout the year, including opportunities for ultrasound-guided procedures and EMGs.
  • Didactic sessions (journal club, core lectures, tumor boards, cancer center meetings)
  • Research/QI project (4 weeks)
  • Program Director & Contact Information:

University of Kansas Medical Center

  • 1 position per year
  • Focus on diagnosis and management of neurological and musculoskeletal impairments and disabilities
  • Inpatient and outpatient opportunities to include:
    • Interventional pain management (electrodiagnostics, ultrasound, fluoroscopic spine procedures)
    • Palliative care
    • Oncology clinics (hematology, oncology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology)
    • Integrative medicine
    • PT/OT/SLP
    • Research time
  • Didactics
  • Program Director and Contact Information:

University of Michigan

  • 1 position per year
  • Inpatient care:
    • Comprehensive cancer consult service, including
    • Lead/attend twice-weekly multidisciplinary conference discussing consult patients
    • Follow oncology patients on inpatient rehabilitation unit
  • Outpatient focuses:
    • Twice weekly general cancer rehab clinics
    • Pediatric cancer rehab clinic
    • Many co-clinics with oncology providers including symptom management, graft vs host disease, head and neck survivorship, gynecologic oncology
    • Monthly multidisciplinary brain tumor clinic
    • Possible MSK/spine non-cancer clinic to get more procedural experience
  • No night or weekend call
  • Research requirement with the expectation of having an accepted peer-reviewed manuscript in a journal indexed on PubMed by the end of the fellowship period
  • Expected to give Grand Rounds, participate in cancer rehabilitation journal club, provide ad hoc teaching of residents (e.g. bedside teaching)
  • Optional additional clinic time for electrodiagnostic training, ultrasound education, interventional spine procedures
  • Optional time spent with allied oncology services
  • Program Director & Contact Information:

How important is doing research when applying for cancer rehabilitation fellowship? How important are the number of publications I have when applying for cancer rehabilitation fellowship?

Cancer rehabilitation as a field has a strong need for additional research. Showing initiative during residency in making a research contribution is highly favorable. However, research background is one factor among many that a program will weigh, and there could be differences between programs in requirements or expectations, including those involving research.

What is the best way to network with those involved in cancer rehabilitation?

Members interested in Cancer Rehabilitation can join the Cancer Rehabilitation Physician Consortium of the AAPM&R bimonthly meeting to discuss opportunities for individual participation in via the subgroups of education, strategic initiatives, and research. Communication is primarily by e-mail and phone conferences. We meet face-to-face at least once a year at AAPM&R’s Annual Assembly. Cancer rehabilitation medicine specialists are generally approachable and want to support other physicians with this interest. Establishing a great mentor is an effective first step in creating your network.

How can I get more involved/learn more about cancer rehabilitation?

You can read more about it. The PM&R Knowledge NOW® section of the AAPM&R website contains the diagnosis and treatment of commonly seen conditions in cancer rehabilitation, under the heading of “Medical Rehabilitation.” The AAPM&R Cancer Rehabilitation Medicine Member Community is a great way to connect with other physicians and discuss emerging opportunities. The AAPM&R Annual Assembly offers courses in cancer rehabilitation topics. Articles about cancer prehabilitation1 and rehabilitation2 provide useful overview.

1. Silver JK, Baima J, Mayer RS. Impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation: an essential component of quality care and survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013; 63(5): 295-317.

2. Silver JK, Raj VS, Fu JB, Wisotzky EM, Smith SR, Kirch RA. Cancer rehabilitation and palliative care: Critical components in the delivery of high-quality oncology services. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2015 Aug 28.